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Composite fabric for automobile seat

Thermal Performance Analysis of Composite Fabric for Automobile Seat
An automobile seat fabric composed of polyester machine fabric, sponge and thin polyester undercloth was selected. Three single-layer components (layer polyester fabric, sponge and undercloth), two two-layer composite components (composite of sponge and undercloth, composite of layer material and sponge) and one three-layer composite component were tested by vertical combustion method.( Combustion properties of layers, sponges and substrates were characterized by DSC and TG. The changes of combustion properties and thermal properties of six kinds of fabrics were analyzed. The results show that the damage length of the two-layer material and the three-layer material is lower than that of the single-layer material, but the thermal stability of the two-layer material and the three-layer material is worse than that of the single-layer material. According to the statistics of the Ministry of Communications, in 2012, the textiles used in the automobile industry in China were nearly 7.3 million tons, with an average consumption of 10-15 kg of fibers per vehicle. A medium-grade car needed 10 M2 decorative fabric and 8.5 M2 carpet fabric. China’s automotive textile market has developed for only 20 years, but its huge market potential is showing year by year. Compared with the slightly profitable textile industry, the profit level of automotive textiles is far higher than the average profit level of textile industry. The automobile seat fabrics are mostly made of flame composite method, which is made of single-layer fabrics, polyurethane sponge layer and thin base cloth by flame composite machine. Despite some shortcomings of flame composite method, it is still widely used because of its advantages of high yield, good washability and improved fabric properties. Jinliang Ying 4 of Donghua University proposed that the process of burner 5, recombination speed, rolling distance and tension affect the recombination effect. Different layers, sponges and substrates also affect the final properties of fabrics, but there is little research in this area. In this paper, the combustion performance and thermal stability of three kinds of single-layer, two-layer and three-layer materials were studied by means of vertical combustion test, thermogravimetric analyzer and DSC. 1 Testing materials, instruments and testing methods 1.1 Testing materials The base cloth, sponge and black cloth (layer polyester fabric, woven pure polyester fabric, same warp and weft direction), the bottom two layers (the composite of the bottom cloth and sponge) and the black two layers (the composite of the black cloth and sponge) provided by Kuanda Automobile Seat Fabric Co., Ltd. There are 6 kinds of black three layers (black cloth,
Composite fabric for automobile seat
sponge and base cloth compound). The basic specifications of six kinds of fabrics can be found in the test instruments and test methods (1) test instruments. The main instruments used in this experiment are 209F1 thermogravimetric analyzer (from 50 to 600 degrees C at the heating rate of 10 C/min), TM3000 DSC analyzer (from room temperature to 300 degrees C at the heating rate of 20 degrees C/min), YG815B vertical flame retardancy tester (ignition time 12 s). (2) Testing methods. According to GB/T 5455-1977 “Vertical Testing Method for Textile Combustion Performance”, the duration of ignition, smoldering time and damage length of six kinds of fabrics (including sponges) were tested. Rating criteria: B1 for damage length is not more than 15 cm, duration is not longer than 5 seconds, smoldering time is more than 5 seconds; B2 for damage length is not more than 20 cm, duration is not more than 10 seconds, smoldering time is not more than 10. The hot melting process of 6 kinds of fabrics (including sponges) was tested by differential thermal analysis (DTA), and the decomposition process of 6 kinds of fabrics (including sponges) was analyzed by thermogravimetry (TG). 2. Results and Analysis of 2.1 Vehicle Seat Fabric Vertical Combustion Performance The longitude and latitude continuation time and damage length of six kinds of fabrics were measured by vertical combustion method as shown in 2. Comparing the relevant data, it can be seen that in the process of composite sponge and bottom cloth, the continuation time of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers is 0 s, that is, the ignition time ends and the flame is extinguished directly after moving away; but as far as the damage length is concerned, the longitude and latitude damage length of bottom cloth is about 15 cm, the sponge is between 10 and 11 cm, and the bottom two layers after composite. The damaged length is 10-11 cm, which is close to that of sponge. The reason why the continuation time of the three fabrics is 0 is that during the ignition time, the fabrics close to the flame are heated and melted, and the width of the melting zone is narrow and parabolic. When the area of the parabola is large, the heat generated by the flame is not enough to make the fabric melt, but not burn, and the length and area of the melting are large, so that the flame can not touch the fabric during the ignition time. Therefore, when evaluating the combustion performance, the damage length of fabrics is more referential. Comparing the damage length, it can be concluded that the burning performance of the bottom two layers is better than that of the bottom cloth, which is similar to that of the sponge. From the experimental phenomena, it can be seen that there is flame on the fabric after the ignition time is over; within 14 seconds, the flame mainly spreads upward; with the increase of time, the damage length increases. After 14 seconds, the flame starts to decrease, no longer burns upward, but spreads downward, and the fire potential is very small; with the increase of time, the damage length is almost equal. No change. Combining with the shrinkage of sponge and base cloth, the burning performance of fabric should be evaluated mainly according to the damage length. Comparing the damage length of three kinds of fabrics, black cloth, sponge and black cloth, the following conclusions can be drawn: the flame retardancy of the composite fabric is improved; the damage length of the composite fabric decreases slightly. Combining with the experimental phenomena, when there is no composite undercloth on the back of the fabric, there are relatively intact fabrics which are blackened by fire and partially melted above the damaged length of the back fabric; after the composite undercloth, this phenomenon weakens. The author believes that although the base cloth does not account for a large proportion of the mass in the composite, it can properly slow down the sponge’s shrinkage and reduce the damage length after the composite of the black second layer and the base cloth. 2.26 kinds of fabrics will decompose in the process of heating by TG analysis. In order to analyze the quality changes caused by these decomposition processes, 9 kinds of fabrics were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. Nitrogen protection was used in this analysis. The temperature of 9 kinds of fabrics was measured by thermogravimetric curves. The temperature of the fabrics was increased from 30 C at room temperature to 600 C at 10 C per minute. (1) TG analysis of sponge, base cloth and bottom two layers. After testing, the thermogravimetric curves of sponge, sponge and sponge fabric composites are obtained as follows: 1. 3The TG comparison of various fabrics can be seen in 3. 1. Comparison of TG curves of sponge, base cloth and bottom two layers of 3 kinds of composite fabrics of sponge, base cloth and sponge substrates Item: Initial 261.2 398.8 242.6 T5% 237.1 385.2 237.4 T10% 255.3 394.6 260.1 T30% 291.1.411.9 342 T50% 352.7 367.0 T 70% 369.1 434.2 404.9 T80% 375.5 446.1 425.2 Tmax 372.3 421.4 362.9 T termination 389.4 441.3 437.4 It can be seen from 1 that there are obvious decomposition and quality loss processes of the three fabrics in the process of heating up from 30 to 600 C under the protection of nitrogen. It can be seen from 1 that the final residual rate of sponge is about 1.7% and that of base cloth is about 12%. The total residual of the composite is about 13.02%, which is equal to the sum of the two. The decomposition rate of the bottom two layers is between the bottom cloth and the sponge, and the shape of the decomposition curve is similar to that of the sponge. The decomposition temperature of the bottom two layers is very close when the decomposition rate is 5%, and the decomposition temperature of the bottom two layers is only 5 (?) C when the decomposition rate is 10%. After the decomposition temperature is higher than 260 (?), the decomposition rate rate The solution curve is more similar to the base cloth. Comparing the decomposition curves and decomposition temperatures of the two single-layer materials, it can be seen that the decomposition of the sponge and the underlying fabric begins at about 380 C, and the decomposition of the sponge has been basically completed at this temperature, and the residual rate has been basically stable. Therefore, the decomposition curve of the composite is similar to that of the sponge when the temperature is below 380 C, and the decomposition curve after that is more similar to that of the sponge. This also explains why the termination decomposition temperature of the composite is close to that of the polyester base cloth. From the fabric quality test above, it can be seen that the quality of single-layer sponge is 1.29 g in 10 cm x 10 cm, while the quality of bottom cloth is only 0.45 g in the same area, and the quality of bottom two layers is 1.59 g. Assuming that the quality ratio of sponge and bottom cloth remains unchanged when they are compounded, the quality ratio of composite sponge to bottom two layers is 1.29 G. It is considered that the decomposition rate of the whole bottom two layers depends on the decomposition of sponges in the bottom two layers when the decomposition temperature is lower than the decomposition temperature of the bottom two layers. In addition to hot melting, the quality of sponge in the composite process also has deformation of the bottom fabric, so the actual proportion of sponge in the bottom two layers is less than 81%. Therefore, when the decomposition rate of single-layer sponge is the same as that of the sponge component in the bottom two layers, the mass loss rate of the two layers will be different because the bottom cloth, which accounts for about 19% of the mass of the bottom two layers, has not yet begun to decompose. Now the decomposition rate of the bottom two layers is lower than that of the single-layer sponge. The initial decomposition temperature decreases and the decomposition temperature range becomes wider when the base cloth and sponge are compounded, and the termination decomposition temperature and residue are close to the base cloth. Thermogravimetric curves of four kinds of fabrics are shown in 2, and TG analysis of black cloth, sponge, second and third layers is shown in 4. Comparisons of TG curves of sponge, black cloth, black second layer and black three layer fabrics can be seen from 2. There are obvious decomposition and mass loss processes of four kinds of fabrics in the process of heating up from 30 to 600 under the protection of nitrogen. TG comparison of 4 kinds of fabrics: sponge, black cloth, black second layer and black third layer. It can be seen from the black second layer and black third layer of the bottom cloth that the residual rate of the bottom cloth is about 12%, the residual rate of the sponge is about 1.7%, the residual rate of the black cloth is about 14%, the residual of the black second layer is about 7.08%, and the residual rate of the black third layer is about 1.7%. The rate was about 7.56%.Comparing the decomposition rate, the decomposition rate of the black second layer and the black third layer is between the black cloth and the sponge, and the shape of the decomposition curve is similar to that of the sponge. When the mass loss rate of the black second layer and the black third layer is 5%, the temperature difference of the black second layer and the black third layer is more than 10 C. The decomposition curve of the black second layer and the black third layer is the whole. During the decomposition process, the decomposition rate of black cloth is the highest, the same mass loss rate, the decomposition temperature of black cloth is higher than that of black layer 2 and black layer 3. At the end of decomposition, the decomposition temperature of black cloth, black layer 2 and black layer 3 is almost the same, but the carbon residue rate of black layer 2 and black layer 3 is much lower than that of black cloth. It shows that the thermal stability of black cloth composite with sponge and base cloth decreases. DSC analysis of 2.36 kinds of fabrics was carried out in air atmosphere from 50 C to 300 C at the heating rate of 20 C/min. The DSC curves of sponge, base cloth and bottom two layers are shown in 3 and 5 respectively. The DSC curves of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers were compared. The DSC analysis items of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers were: bottom two layers of sponge cloth. The initial melting temperatures of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers were 227.47, 247.02 and 246.86 respectively. The initial melting temperatures of bottom two layers were higher than that of sponge about 20, which was small. It is less than 1 C on the base cloth. This fully illustrates that the initial melting temperature of the bottom two layers increases and the heat resistance of the composite layer improves greatly. From 5, it can be seen that the melting peaks of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers are 257.94, 252.30 and 252.0 respectively, with little difference. The termination decomposition temperatures of sponge, bottom cloth and bottom two layers are 276.76, 254.70 and 253.97 respectively. Both groups of data show that the melting peaks and termination decomposition temperatures after compounding are better than those of bottom cloth. Approximate, especially near 250 C. In addition, it can be seen that the peak value of the melting zone of the bottom cloth and the second layer is obvious, while the melting curve of the sponge is broad and fat, and the melting peak is not obvious. This is related to the fact that sponge is made up of different components such as soft segment and hard segment, while the base fabric is made of polyester material, so the melting peak is obvious. The enthalpy variations of the three have obvious differences. The difference between the initial decomposition temperature and the termination decomposition temperature of the bottom two layers is small, and the peak value is small, so the enthalpy variations are the lowest. From the point of view of heating and melting, the thermal properties and the heat required for melting are reduced when the substrates and sponges are compounded. The DSC curves of sponge, black cloth, black two-layer and black three-layer materials are shown in 4. See 6 for the analysis. DSC curves of 4 layers of sponge, black cloth, black second layer and black third layer compared with 6 layers of sponge, base cloth, black cloth, black second layer and black third layer. It can be seen that the initial melting temperatures of sponge, bottom cloth, black second layer and black third layer are 227.47, respectively. At temperatures of 247.02, 250.89, 243.93 and 243.75, the initial melting temperatures of the black layer and the black layer are close to each other and higher than that of the sponge. The initial melting temperatures of the composite are higher than that of the sponge, about 20 degrees centigrade, less than 1 degrees centigrade. This shows that the melting temperature of the composites increases and the heat resistance of the composites increases greatly. The melting peak value, termination melting temperature and enthalpy change of the two layers are almost the same. The indexes of the two layers are slightly smaller than those of the base cloth and the black cloth, and significantly smaller than those of the sponge. It can be concluded that the thermal properties of the composite fabrics deviate from those of the polyester fibers due to the addition of the sponge. 3. Concluding remarks (1) Through the vertical combustion experiment, it is concluded that the damage length and continuation time of the bottom two layers are close to that of the sponge when the sponge and the bottom cloth are compounded; after the black cloth and the sponge are compounded, the flame retardancy is improved, while the damage length of the black two layers and the bottom cloth is reduced slightly. (2) Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the initial decomposition temperature decreases and the decomposition temperature range enlarges after the composite of the base cloth and sponge, and the thermal stability decreases after the composite of the base cloth and the black cloth, sponge and bottom cloth is close to the final decomposition temperature and the residue. (3) From the point of view of heating and melting, the thermal properties of the composites of the base cloth and sponge decrease, and the heat required for melting decreases; because of the addition of sponge, the thermal properties of the composites of black cloth, sponge and base cloth deviate from the properties of polyester fibers.

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